Symptoms and causes of vitamin D deficiency and methods of treatment
The primary function of vitamin D is to maintain the balance of minerals in the body, mainly calcium and phosphorous levels. Vitamin D enhances the absorption of minerals in the intestine, prevents the excessive loss of these minerals in the kidneys, and controls the entry and exit of minerals in the bones. New research indicates that vitamin D has an important role in regulating cell growth processes, including suppressing the growth of cancer cells and increasing immune system activity.
The most important sources of vitamin D
Self-production in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation: the raw material dihydrocholesterol 7 (7 - dehydrocholesterol) is converted to pre-vitamin D3 and finally to vitamin D3.
External supply from food source: Vitamin D is found in food that comes from animals, and is completely identical to the vitamin D3 that is produced in our bodies. On the other hand, vitamin D2 comes from plant foods. Vitamin D is found in special foods such as liver, egg yolks and fish oil.
Important information about vitamin D
1. It is a hormone from the steroid hormone family. Its production in our body is subject to strict control, and its production mechanism is similar to that of other hormones.
2. The vitamin must undergo changes in the liver and kidneys, before it is functional, in the liver the vitamin undergoes a hydroxylation process that results in hydroxyvitamin D25 .
3. The vast majority of vitamin D is converted into this product, and identification of this substance in the blood reflects the state of vitamin D in the body.
4. An additional hydroxylation process is performed in the kidneys to obtain dihydroxyvitamine D 1,25 (D 1,25) This product is the active hormonal derivative of vitamin (D).
5. The production of dihydroxyvitamin D 1.25 in the kidneys is tightly controlled: in a situation where the level of calcium or phosphorous is low, or the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood is high, the production of the active vitamin D derivative increases, and vice versa.
6. Malnutrition or diseases in the digestive system, which in turn lead to difficulty in the process of absorbing food and insufficient exposure to sunlight, results in a deficiency in vitamin D, a low level of calcium in the blood, disorders of bone calcification and diseases such as: rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
7. The recommended daily intake is 400 - 600 international units (0,1 IU = 0,025 m "g). This amount can also be provided by exposure to the sun. In the United States of America, vitamin D is artificially added to milk and its products.
8. The reduced ability to absorb vitamin D in the intestine, and the decreased efficiency of self-production of vitamin D in old age, may lead to vitamin D deficiency in the elderly.
9. After understanding the system for converting substances to obtain vitamin (D), it becomes clear that liver diseases may lead to a decrease in the level of hydroxyvitamin D25 (D25) in the blood; Renal failure leads to disturbances in the production of dihydroxyvitaminosis 1,25D, and a similar problem appears in the case of hypothyroidism.
The importance of vitamin D for women
The lack of estrogen and its disappearance in postmenopausal women has a negative effect on mineral production due to the decrease in the production of dihydroxyvitamin (D) 1.25 and the decrease in the amount of dihydroxyvitamin (D) receptors 1,25.
A decrease in the level and activity of dihydroxyvitamin D 1.25 (dihydroxyvitamin D) increases the activity of the thyroid gland and promotes bone-breaking processes, leading to osteoporosis.
Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency include:
1. Chronic fatigue.
2. Chronic and persistent pain in different parts of the body.
3. Autoimmune diseases (such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, osteoporosis) slow weakness in the bones due to depletion of calcium stores in the body
4. Development of heart disease, high blood pressure and heart attacks.
Symptoms of its deficiency are not limited to women only, it also causes the following:
Vitamin D deficiency, especially in children, leads to fragility diseases that result in severe deformities of the skeleton and bones of the limbs. In adults, a deficiency in vitamin D may lead to weak muscles and bones.
The population group at greatest risk of developing vitamin D deficiency are:
1. The elderly
2. People who are overweight
3. Breastfeeding women
4. People who expose their bodies to a limited extent to the sun
5. People with cystic fibrosis or inflammatory diseases of the intestine (Crohn's disease)
Methods for treating vitamin D deficiency
1. Exposure to the sun
2. Eat foods rich in or fortified with vitamin D.
3. Eat pills that contain vitamin D
4. Intravenous vitamin injection.
5. For patients with metabolic disorders, they are treated with dihydroxyvitamin (D) 1.25 or its synthetic analogs.